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e2fsck is used to check the ext2/ext3/ext4 family of file systems.
Note: that in general it is not safe to run e2fsck on mounted filesystems.

Usage: e2fsck [-panyrcdfvtDFV] [-b superblock] [-B blocksize]
		[-I inode_buffer_blocks] [-P process_inode_size]
		[-l|-L bad_blocks_file] [-C fd] [-j external_journal]
		[-E extended-options] device

Emergency help:
 -p                   Automatic repair (no questions)
 -n                   Make no changes to the filesystem
 -y                   Assume "yes" to all questions
 -c                   Check for bad blocks and add them to the badblock list
 -f                   Force checking even if filesystem is marked clean
 -v                   Be verbose
 -b superblock        Use alternative superblock
 -B blocksize         Force blocksize when looking for superblock
 -j external_journal  Set location of the external journal
 -l bad_blocks_file   Add to badblocks list
 -L bad_blocks_file   Set badblocks list

Also on the Wiki

e2fsck - Linux man page
When and How to run/execute e2fsck ?
Fsck - original command, non-filesystem specific

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