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====How to make a GNU/Linux frugal installation with copy-to-R.A.M. mode system operation====

A [[frugal]] installation is performed by //extracting the contents of the container file// (either ISO or ZIP) to normally __one__, i.e. the same, directory.

Let that desired partition be known as the target partition since one is aiming to install to it. That partition may be located on:
- either an external device, e.g.[[ a flash memory drive]] (often erroneously referred to as a //memory stick//)
- or, an internal device, usually a hard disk drive (H.D.D.)

Therefore, the target device is the device which contains the partition that one aims to install to, such as an external flash memory drive or an internal hard disk drive. The minimum, nominal storage capacity for a flash memory drive is 256MB.

Copy-to-R.A.M. mode system operation refers to how the computer operating system is able to create a temporary environment whereby it reads and writes to its __complete file-system residing entirely within random access memory__ (R.A.M.).

Operating systems which have copy-to-R.A.M. mode:
~-Puppy GNU/Linux (copy-to-R.A.M. mode is determined by the configuration file ##syslinux.cfg## containing //pfix=copy//)
~-PartedMagic GNU/Linux (copy-to-R.A.M. mode is default behaviour)
~-[[porteus Porteus]] GNU/Linux

<<**WARNING**: If the target partition contains any important files **{{color text="make a minimum of two copies of important files, where each copy is located on a separate partition on a separate device" c="red"}}**, because they will be destroyed whenever the target partition is formatted.<<

<<**IMPORTANT**: **{{color text="determine the correct device name (sdX) of the target device" c="red"}}** to work on, via the command-line interface: %%lsblk%%<<

The following procedure assumes that one is running Puppy GNU/Linux. However, the same procedure can be followed within any GNU/Linux distribution. If one wishes to use Microsoft Windows go to [[ Appendix]] below.

~-this step is optional, i.e. only proceed if one does not wish to keep the existing //partition structure// on the target drive X
~- existing partition structure on the target drive X: %%/usr/sbin/parted /dev/sdX print%%
- install the latest available versions of: ##[[ bzip2, grep, gzip, parted, tar]]##
~-for removable device access, install the latest available version of: ##[[ libusb]]##
- **un-mount the target device X**: %%umount /dev/sdX%%
- **create a partition table (disklabel)** on the target device X {**##{{color text="WARNING" c="red"}}##**: access to all existing files on the target device will be lost}: %%/usr/sbin/parted /dev/sdX mklabel gpt && /usr/sbin/parted -l%%
- **create a partition** (partitioning) on the target device X (where //set 1// defines partition 1 of device X to be the boot partition; and in this example just one partition is created): %%/usr/sbin/parted -a opt /dev/sdX mkpart primary ext4 8 100% set 1 boot on && /usr/sbin/parted /dev/sdX disk_set pmbr_boot on && /usr/sbin/parted /dev/sdX set 1 legacy_boot on print%%

==Step 2 - FORMATTING==
~-this step is optional, i.e. only proceed if one does not wish to keep the existing //file-system structure// on the target drive
- **create a file-system (formatting)** on the partition(s) of the target device X {**##{{color c="red" text="WARNING"}}##**: all data on the target partition will be over-written (destroyed)}:
~~-for **[[ EXT4]]** file-system creation {requires a recent version of **[[ e2fsprogs]]**}: %%/sbin/mkfs.ext4 -b 4096 -m 0 -L PUPPY -O extents,uninit_bg,dir_index,filetype,has_journal,sparse_super -E stride=4,stripe-width=256 /dev/sdXY%%
~~-for **FAT16** file-system creation {requires a recent version of **[[ dosfstools]]**}: %%mkdosfs -v -n PUPPY -F 16 /dev/sdXY%%

~-**install a recent version of the boot-loader ##[[ SYSLINUX]]##** to one's actual operating system in use:
~~-**[[ SYSLINUX]]5**
~~-installing this package merely makes available the ##SYSLINUX## files for one's use; it does not replace any of the existing boot-loader files which one's actual operating system makes use of for booting (starting-up) itself
~~-initiating the following procedure to install the boot-loader to the target device requires one to perform it to __completion__; this ensures that no remnants of older ##SYSLINUX## versions remain on the target device
~-**install the boot-loader [[ c32 modules]]** __to the target device X__ at only one of these locations ///dev/sdXY/{boot/syslinux,syslinux}//: %%cp -af /usr/lib/syslinux/{libcom32,libutil,linux,menu}.c32 /dev/sdXY/boot/syslinux/%% %%cp -af /usr/lib/syslinux/{libcom32,libutil,linux,menu}.c32 /dev/sdXY/syslinux/%%
~~-those four modules listed are the minimum required; if extra functionality is required, e.g. //chain.c32//, //vesamenu.c32//, as determined by the contents of //syslinux.cfg//, copy the extra, relevant files from ///usr/lib/syslinux//
- **install the boot-loader boot sector code** __to the target device X__: %%/bin/dd bs=440 conv=notrunc count=1 if=/usr/lib/syslinux/gptmbr.bin of=/dev/sdX && sync%%
- **install the boot-loader configuration file //syslinux.cfg//** __to the target device X__ by copying it to either ///boot/syslinux// or ///syslinux//
~~-[[ sample]] file for flash memory drives with: //[[ pmedia]]=usbflash//, //elevator=noop//
~~-this file will need editing if more than one Puppy version has been installed
~~-the //[[ pkeys]]// parameter will need to be configured for the required keyboard layout, e.g. //pkeys=us//, //pkeys=uk//, //pkeys=fr//, //pkeys=de//, etc.
- **install the boot-loader system file //ldlinux.sys//** __to the target device X__, using the installers ##extlinux## or ##syslinux##:
~~-for EXT4 file-systems, ensuring that it is mounted first: %%/bin/mount /dev/sdXY /mnt/sdXY && /bin/mkdir -p /mnt/sdXY/boot && /sbin/extlinux -i -s /mnt/sdXY/boot && sync%%
~~-for FAT file-systems: %%/bin/mkdir -p /mnt/sdXY/boot && /usr/bin/syslinux --directory /boot -i -s /dev/sdXY && sync%%
~~-removing //ldlinux.sys// without formatting
~~~-the //ldlinux.sys// file has the immutable attribute set, which prevents it from being deleted or overwritten; this is because the sector location of the file must not change or else ##syslinux## has to be re-installed; to remove it, run: %%chattr -i /boot/syslinux/ldlinux.sys && rm -f /boot/syslinux/ldlinux.sys%%

- mount the target device
- mount the Puppy ISO (or ZIP) file by clicking on it
- copy from the ISO (or ZIP) directory to the target device either all the files, or, just these essential ones: //vmlinuz//, //initrd.gz//, and all those with the extension //.sfs// (if more than one Puppy version is to be installed ensure that they are each contained within their own directory)
- follow the instructions at LiveDVD //Appendix 3//
- re-boot the computer with the flash memory device connected
~-when shutting down the system there may be the option to create a personal storage (''pupsave'') file which must be chosen if personal settings and configuration are to be saved

==Installation to any external device, from within Microsoft Windows==
- format the drive or partition with FAT32
- download and extract the latest //##[[]]##// file to the //C// drive, i.e. //C:\syslinux//
- go to directory //C:\syslinux\win32\// %%cd C:\syslinux\win32\%%
- with administrator privileges run the ##syslinux## command to make the target device bootable: (where X is the drive letter for the target drive or partition) %%syslinux.exe -m -a X:%%
~-open the Puppy ISO (or ZIP) file to view its contents, using e.g. 7-zip (it is important that the original file names be kept) and copy to the target device the files: **//vmlinuz//**, **//initrd.gz//**, and all those with the extension **//.sfs//**
~-create a directory //syslinux// on the target device which __contains__ the following files:
~~-a boot-loader configuration file {sample **[[ syslinux.cfg]]** (for flash memory drives only; read //Step 3// above)}
~~-the required boot-loader **c32 modules** copied from //C:\syslinux// (read //Step 3// above)
~-follow the instructions at LiveDVD //Appendix 3//
~-re-boot (re-start) the computer with the flash memory device connected
~-if the operating system does not load (start), repeat the installation on a **FAT16** formatted partition

==Installation to any Microsoft Windows partition and using ""GRUBforDOS"" as boot-loader==
~-__Installing the boot-loader to the internal hard disk drive (where Microsoft Windows resides)__
~-__Installing the boot-loader to an external drive__

When making an installation to an internal H.D.D. with an existing operating system, one has the option to either allow that operating system to remain or be removed. Only remove the existing operating system if the computer is more than 3 years old since most computer manufacturers cease to provide [[ new B.I.O.S. versions]] after that time. If the intention is to remove the existing operating system, regardless of computer age, then ensure to check for and install any B.I.O.S. updates first.

If the Puppy files are to be appended, by making a //frugal installation only// of Puppy, then this would involve one of the following:
- either making a //new partition// for Puppy (not recommended)
- or, using an //existing partition// for Puppy (recommended)

One can place a frugal installation within a pre-existing Windows installation. The save file, although itself is comprised of a Linux file-system, may reside on a F.A.T. or N.T.F.S. partition; which is why a frugal installation is also called a "co-exist" installation. A full hard disk drive installation on a F.A.T. partition is not possible because F.A.T. partitions do not support Linux symbolic links.

There is an option to install from within Microsoft Windows using the relevant file from here:

==How to run Puppy Linux from a flash memory drive on any computer already running==

==Absent internal H.D.D.==
~-older Puppy versions will not boot from an external flash memory drive if the internal H.D.D. has been removed: %%Posted on 23 Apr 2011, 22:54 by perthie
USB Install Issue?
I notice that you still haven't commented on this issue. A machine
missing an internal hard drive can no longer be booted from a flash
drive. The new search procedure fails to find the sfs file on the flash
Posted on 24 Apr 2011, 8:20 by BarryK
Re no boot usb
I have written it down in my to-do list.%%

==Using GRUBforDOS boot-loader for all common file-systems==
- install the latest available version of helper program [[ Grub4DosConfig]]
- install the boot code to the M.B.R. of the target device X: --time-out=0 /dev/sdX%%
- install the boot system file //[[ grldr]]// by placing it on the target device
- install the boot configuration file //menu.lst//, or update an existing one, by using [[ Grub4DosConfig]]: //Menu > System > ""Grub4Dos""//
- follow the additional instructions in //Appendix 3// at LiveDVD

==Also on the Wiki==
~[[USBBootwithoutBIOSSupport USB Boot without BIOS support]]
~[[FrugalOrFullInstallation Full or Frugal installation]]

==Related Webpages==
~[[ Frugalinstaller-1.5 GUI thread]]
~[[ Enrich 'Frugal' instead of doing full install]]
~[[ How To Do A USB Install Of Puppy Linux Slacko (youtube)]]

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